In the next few articles, we will discuss mathematical and statistical models that are commonly used to study the spread of infectious diseases. Such models are used to inform decisions on disease prevention, surveillance, control and treatment and can be applied to new epidemics, such as the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak.
The development of precision medicine approaches for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is confounded by its pronounced genetic, phenotypic, and clinical heterogeneity. Recent multiplatform genomic studies revealed the existence of genetic subtypes of DLBCL using clustering methodologies. Here, we describe an algorithm that determines the probability that a patient's lymphoma belongs to one of seven genetic subtypes based on its genetic features. This classification reveals genetic similarities between these DLBCL subtypes and various indolent and extranodal lymphoma types, suggesting a shared pathogenesis. These genetic subtypes also have distinct gene expression profiles, immune microenvironments, and outcomes following immunochemotherapy. Functional analysis of genetic subtype models highlights distinct vulnerabilities to targeted therapy, supporting the use of this classification in precision medicine trials.
Methods for the focused isolation of low-abundance natural products with specific chemical substructures could expand known bioactive chemical diversity for drug discovery. Here we report the combined use of genome mining and an 15N NMR-based screening method for the targeted isolation of the low-abundance piperazic-acid-containing peptides incarnatapeptins A (1) and B (3). Incarnatapeptin B (3) shows in vitro cytotoxicity to LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
Overcoming drug resistance and targeting cancer stem cells remain challenges for curative cancer treatment. To investigate the role of miRNAs in regulating drug resistance and leukemic stem cell (LSCs) fate, we performed global transcriptome profiling in treatment-naïve chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) stem/progenitor cells and identified that miR-185 levels anticipate their response to ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). miR-185 functions as a tumor suppressor; its restored expression impaired survival of drug-resistant cells, sensitized them to TKIs in vitro, and markedly eliminated long-term repopulating LSCs and infiltrating blast cells, conferring a survival advantage in pre-clinical xenotransplantation models. Integrative analysis with mRNA profiles uncovered PAK6 as a crucial target of miR-185 and pharmacological inhibition of PAK6 perturbed the RAS/MAPK pathway and mitochondrial activity, sensitizing therapy-resistant cells to TKIs. Thus, miR-185 presents as a potential predictive biomarker, and dual targeting of miR-185-mediated PAK6 activity and BCR-ABL may provide a valuable strategy for overcoming drug resistance in patients.
Inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Ralaniten (formally EPI-002) prevents AR transcriptional activity by binding to its N-terminal domain (NTD) which is essential for transcriptional activity. Ralaniten acetate (EPI-506) the triacetate pro-drug of ralaniten, remains the only AR-NTD inhibitor to have entered clinical trials (NCT02606123). While well tolerated, the trial was ultimately terminated due to poor pharmacokinetic properties and resulting pill burden. Here we discovered that ralaniten was glucuronidated which resulted in decreased potency. Long-term treatment of prostate cancer cells with ralaniten results in upregulation of UGT2B enzymes with concomitant loss of potency. This has proven to be a useful model with which to facilitate the development of more potent second-generation AR-NTD inhibitors. Glucuronidated metabolites of ralaniten were also detected in the serum of patients in Phase 1 clinical trials. Therefore, we tested an analogue of ralaniten (EPI-045) which was resistant to glucuronidation and demonstrated superiority to ralaniten in our resistant model. These data support that analogues of ralaniten designed to mitigate glucuronidation may optimize clinical responses to AR-NTD inhibitors.
Addressing Indigenous rights and interests in genetic resources has become increasingly challenging in an open science environment that promotes unrestricted access to genomic data. Although Indigenous experiences with genetic research have been shaped by a series of negative interactions, there is increasing recognition that equitable benefits can only be realized through greater participation of Indigenous communities. Issues of trust, accountability and equity underpin Indigenous critiques of genetic research and the sharing of genomic data. This Perspectives article highlights identified issues for Indigenous communities around the sharing of genomic data and suggests principles and actions that genomic researchers can adopt to recognize community rights and interests in data.
Familial aggregation of lymphoid cancers and immune-related disorders suggests a role for genetic susceptibility; however, few studies examine environmental factors. According to the hygiene hypothesis, adult-onset-immune-related diseases may be a consequence of reduced childhood infectious exposures and aberrant immune development. In a cohort of 196 multiple-case lymphoid cancer families, we analyzed environmental factors related to the hygiene hypothesis.