Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 2019
Authors
Jones, Martin R, Williamson, Laura M, Topham, James T, Lee, Michael K C, Goytain, Angela, Ho, Julie, Denroche, Robert E, Jang, GunHo, Pleasance, Erin, Shen, Yaoquing, Karasinska, Joanna M, McGhie, John P, Gill, Sharlene, Lim, Howard J, Moore, Malcolm J, Wong, Hui-Li, Ng, Tony, Yip, Stephen, Zhang, Wei, Sadeghi, Sara, Reisle, Carolyn, Mungall, Andrew J, Mungall, Karen L, Moore, Richard A, Ma, Yussanne, Knox, Jennifer J, Gallinger, Steven, Laskin, Janessa, Marra, Marco A, Schaeffer, David F, Jones, Steven J M, Renouf, Daniel J
Publication Abstract
Gene fusions involving neuregulin 1 () have been noted in multiple cancer types and have potential therapeutic implications. Although varying results have been reported in other cancer types, the efficacy of the HER-family kinase inhibitor afatinib in the treatment of fusion-positive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is not fully understood.

Cold Spring Harbor molecular case studies, 2019
Authors
Wong, Derek, Shen, Yaoqing, Levine, Adrian B, Pleasance, Erin, Jones, Martin, Mungall, Karen, Thiessen, Brian, Toyota, Brian, Laskin, Janessa, Jones, Steven J M, Marra, Marco A, Yip, Stephen
Publication Abstract
Effective management of brain and spine tumors relies on a multidisciplinary approach encompassing surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy. In the era of personalized oncology, the latter is complemented by various molecularly targeting agents. Precise identification of cellular targets for these drugs requires comprehensive profiling of the cancer genome coupled with an efficient analytic pipeline, leading to an informed decision on drug selection, prognosis, and confirmation of the original pathological diagnosis. Acquisition of optimal tumor tissue for such analysis is paramount and often presents logistical challenges in neurosurgery. Here, we describe the experience and results of the Personalized OncoGenomics (POG) program with a focus on tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Patients with recurrent CNS tumors were consented and enrolled into the POG program prior to accrual of tumor and matched blood followed by whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing and processing through the POG bioinformatic pipeline. Sixteen patients were enrolled into POG. In each case, POG analyses identified genomic drivers including novel oncogenic fusions, aberrant pathways, and putative therapeutic targets. POG has highlighted that personalized oncology is truly a multidisciplinary field, one in which neurosurgeons must play a vital role if these programs are to succeed and benefit our patients.

The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD, 2019
Authors
Parker, Jeremy D K, Yap, Shyong Quin, Starks, Elizabeth, Slind, Jillian, Swanson, Lucas, Docking, T Roderick, Fuller, Megan, Zhou, Chen, Walker, Blair, Filipenko, Douglas, Xiong, Wei, Karimuddin, Ahmer A, Phang, P Terry, Raval, Manoj, Brown, Carl J, Karsan, Aly
Publication Abstract
Formalin fixation is the standard method for the preservation of tissue for diagnostic purposes, including pathologic review and molecular assays. However, this method is known to cause artifacts that can affect the accuracy of molecular genetic test results. We assessed the applicability of alternative fixatives to determine whether these perform significantly better on next-generation sequencing assays, and whether adequate morphology is retained for primary diagnosis, in a prospective study using a clinical-grade, laboratory-developed targeted resequencing assay. Several parameters relating to sequencing quality and variant calling were examined and quantified in tumor and normal colon epithelial tissues. We identified an alternative fixative that suppresses many formalin-related artifacts while retaining adequate morphology for pathologic review.

Nature communications, 2019
Authors
Kusakabe, Manabu, Sun, Ann Chong, Tyshchenko, Kateryna, Wong, Rachel, Nanda, Aastha, Shanna, Claire, Gusscott, Samuel, Chavez, Elizabeth A, Lorzadeh, Alireza, Zhu, Alice, Hill, Ainsleigh, Hung, Stacy, Brown, Scott, Babaian, Artem, Wang, Xuehai, Holt, Robert A, Steidl, Christian, Karsan, Aly, Humphries, R Keith, Eaves, Connie J, Hirst, Martin, Weng, Andrew P
Publication Abstract
Mechanistic studies in human cancer have relied heavily on cell lines and mouse models, but are limited by in vitro adaptation and species context issues, respectively. More recent efforts have utilized patient-derived xenografts; however, these are hampered by variable genetic background, inability to study early events, and practical issues with availability/reproducibility. We report here an efficient, reproducible model of T-cell leukemia in which lentiviral transduction of normal human cord blood yields aggressive leukemia that appears indistinguishable from natural disease. We utilize this synthetic model to uncover a role for oncogene-induced HOXB activation which is operative in leukemia cells-of-origin and persists in established tumors where it defines a novel subset of patients distinct from other known genetic subtypes and with poor clinical outcome. We show further that anterior HOXB genes are specifically activated in human T-ALL by an epigenetic mechanism and confer growth advantage in both pre-leukemia cells and established clones.

Microbiology resource announcements, 2019
Authors
Lin, Diana, Coombe, Lauren, Jackman, Shaun D, Gagalova, Kristina K, Warren, René L, Hammond, S Austin, McDonald, Helen, Kirk, Heather, Pandoh, Pawan, Zhao, Yongjun, Moore, Richard A, Mungall, Andrew J, Ritland, Carol, Doerksen, Trevor, Jaquish, Barry, Bousquet, Jean, Jones, Steven J M, Bohlmann, Joerg, Birol, Inanc
Publication Abstract
Engelmann spruce () is a conifer found primarily on the west coast of North America. Here, we present the complete chloroplast genome sequence of genotype Se404-851. This chloroplast sequence will benefit future conifer genomic research and contribute resources to further species conservation efforts.

Microbiology resource announcements, 2019
Authors
Lin, Diana, Coombe, Lauren, Jackman, Shaun D, Gagalova, Kristina K, Warren, René L, Hammond, S Austin, Kirk, Heather, Pandoh, Pawan, Zhao, Yongjun, Moore, Richard A, Mungall, Andrew J, Ritland, Carol, Jaquish, Barry, Isabel, Nathalie, Bousquet, Jean, Jones, Steven J M, Bohlmann, Joerg, Birol, Inanc
Publication Abstract
Here, we present the complete chloroplast genome sequence of white spruce (, genotype WS77111), a coniferous tree widespread in the boreal forests of North America. This sequence contributes to genomic and phylogenetic analyses of the genus that are part of ongoing research to understand their adaptation to environmental stress.

Cell death & disease, 2019
Authors
Chern, Yi-Jye, Wong, John C T, Cheng, Grace S W, Yu, Angel, Yin, Yaling, Schaeffer, David F, Kennecke, Hagen F, Morin, Gregg, Tai, Isabella T
Publication Abstract
Therapy-refractory disease is one of the main contributors of treatment failure in cancer. In colorectal cancer (CRC), SPARC can function as a sensitizer to conventional chemotherapy by enhancing apoptosis by interfering with the activity of Bcl-2. Here, we examine a novel mechanism by which SPARC further potentiates apoptosis via its modulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Using mass spectrometry to identify SPARC-associated proteins, GRP78 was identified as a protein partner for SPARC in CRC. In vitro studies conducted to assess the signaling events resulting from this interaction, included induction of ER stress with tunicamycin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and irinotecan (CPT-11). We found that the interaction between GRP78 and SPARC increased during exposure to 5-FU, CPT-11, and tunicamycin, resulting in an attenuation of GRP78's inhibition of apoptosis. In addition, we also show that SPARC can sensitize CRC cells to PERK/eIF2α and IRE1α/XBP-1 UPR signaling by interfering with ER stress following binding to GRP78, which leads to ER stress-associated cell death in CRC cells. In line with these findings, a lower expression of GRP78 relative to SPARC in CRC is associated with a lower IC{{sub}}50{{/sub}} for 5-FU in either sensitive or therapy-refractory CRC cells. Interestingly, this observation correlates with tissue microarray analysis of 143 human CRC, where low GRP78 to SPARC expression level was prognostic of higher survival rate (P = 0.01) in individuals with CRC. This study demonstrates that modulation of UPR signaling by SPARC promotes ER stress-associated death and potentiates apoptosis. This may be an effective strategy that can be combined with current treatment options to improve therapeutic efficacy in CRC.

Cold Spring Harbor molecular case studies, 2019
Authors
Williamson, Laura M, Steel, Michael, Grewal, Jasleen K, Thibodeau, My Lihn, Zhao, Eric Y, Loree, Jonathan M, Yang, Kevin C, Gorski, Sharon M, Mungall, Andrew J, Mungall, Karen L, Moore, Richard A, Marra, Marco A, Laskin, Janessa, Renouf, Daniel J, Schaeffer, David F, Jones, Steven J M
Publication Abstract
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs) represent a minority of pancreatic neoplasms that exhibit variability in prognosis. Ongoing mutational analyses of PanNENs have found recurrent abnormalities in chromatin remodeling genes (e.g., and ), and mTOR pathway genes (e.g., , , and ), some of which have relevance to patients with related familial syndromes. Most recently, grade 3 PanNENs have been divided into two groups based on differentiation, creating a new group of well-differentiated grade 3 neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) that have had a limited whole-genome level characterization to date. In a patient with a metastatic well-differentiated grade 3 PanNET, our study utilized whole-genome sequencing of liver metastases for the comparative analysis and detection of single-nucleotide variants, insertions and deletions, structural variants, and copy-number variants, with their biologic relevance confirmed by RNA sequencing. We found that this tumor most notably exhibited a -disrupting fusion, showed a novel fusion, and lacked any somatic variants in , , and .

Cell reports, 2019
Authors
Coulombe, Patrick, Paliouras, Grigorios N, Clayton, Ashley, Hussainkhel, Angela, Fuller, Megan, Jovanovic, Vida, Dauphinee, Shauna, Umlandt, Patricia, Xiang, Ping, Kyle, Alistair H, Minchinton, Andrew I, Humphries, R Keith, Hoodless, Pamela A, Parker, Jeremy D K, Wright, Joanne L, Karsan, Aly
Publication Abstract
The sterile alpha motif (SAM) and SRC homology 3 (SH3) domain containing protein 1 (Sash1) acts as a scaffold in TLR4 signaling. We generated Sash1{{sup}}-/-{{/sup}} mice, which die in the perinatal period due to respiratory distress. Constitutive or endothelial-restricted Sash1 loss leads to a delay in maturation of alveolar epithelial cells causing reduced surfactant-associated protein synthesis. We show that Sash1 interacts with β-arrestin 1 downstream of the TLR4 pathway to activate Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in microvascular endothelial cells. Generation of nitric oxide downstream of Sash1 in endothelial cells affects alveolar epithelial cells in a cGMP-dependent manner, inducing maturation of alveolar type 1 and 2 cells. Thus, we identify a critical cell nonautonomous function for Sash1 in embryonic development in which endothelial Sash1 regulates alveolar epithelial cell maturation and promotes pulmonary surfactant production through nitric oxide signaling. Lung immaturity is a major cause of respiratory distress and mortality in preterm infants, and these findings identify the endothelium as a potential target for therapy.

The Journal of biological chemistry, 2019
Authors
Tien, Amy H, Sadar, Marianne D
Publication Abstract
The androgen receptor (AR) is tightly linked to prostate cancer, but the mechanisms by which AR transactivation is dysregulated during cancer progression are not fully explored. Dagar examined AR translocation to the nucleus to identify a link between heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and protein kinase A (PKA). Their findings provide a potential mechanism of the initiation of AR transactivation and potential targets for developing and refining treatments for prostate cancer.
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