Objective: Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that facilitates collagen maturation. Its role in cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of HSP47 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and therapy resistance. Methods: Expression of HSP47 in CRC tissues was examined (1) in paired human CRC/adjacent normal tissues, using real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and 22 independent microarray databases (curated CRC). In vitro studies on several CRC cell lines (HCT116, RKO and CCL228) with modulated HSP47 expression were conducted to assess cell viability and apoptosis (TUNEL assay and caspase-3/-7) during exposure to chemotherapy. AKT signaling and co-immunoprecipitation studies were performed to examine HSP47 and PHLPP1 interaction. In vivo studies using tumor xenografts were conducted to assess the effects of HSP47 modulation on tumor growth and therapy response. Results: HSP47 was upregulated in CRC and was associated with poor prognosis in individuals with CRC. In vitro, HSP47 overexpression supported the survival of CRC cells, whereas its knockdown sensitized cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). HSP47 promoted survival by inhibiting apoptosis, enhancing AKT phosphorylation, and decreasing expression of the AKT-specific phosphatase PHLPP1 when cells were exposed to chemotherapy. These effects were partly results of the interaction between HSP47 and PHLPP1, which decreased PHLPP1 stability and led to more persistent AKT activity. In vivo, HSP47 supported tumor growth despite 5-FU treatment. Conclusions: HSP47 supports the growth of CRC tumors and suppresses the efficacy of chemotherapy via modulation of AKT signaling.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients are typically treated with immunochemotherapy containing rituximab (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin-vincristine (Oncovin), and prednisone [R-CHOP]); however, prognosis is extremely poor if R-CHOP fails. To identify genetic mechanisms contributing to primary or acquired R-CHOP resistance, we performed target-panel sequencing of 135 relapsed/refractory DLBCLs (rrDLBCLs), primarily comprising circulating tumor DNA from patients on clinical trials. Comparison with a metacohort of 1670 diagnostic DLBCLs identified 6 genes significantly enriched for mutations upon relapse. TP53 and KMT2D were mutated in the majority of rrDLBCLs, and these mutations remained clonally persistent throughout treatment in paired diagnostic-relapse samples, suggesting a role in primary treatment resistance. Nonsense and missense mutations affecting MS4A1, which encodes CD20, are exceedingly rare in diagnostic samples but show recurrent patterns of clonal expansion following rituximab-based therapy. MS4A1 missense mutations within the transmembrane domains lead to loss of CD20 in vitro, and patient tumors harboring these mutations lacked CD20 protein expression. In a time series from a patient treated with multiple rounds of therapy, tumor heterogeneity and minor MS4A1-harboring subclones contributed to rapid disease recurrence, with MS4A1 mutations as founding events for these subclones. TP53 and KMT2D mutation status, in combination with other prognostic factors, may be used to identify high-risk patients prior to R-CHOP for posttreatment monitoring. Using liquid biopsies, we show the potential to identify tumors with loss of CD20 surface expression stemming from MS4A1 mutations. Implementation of noninvasive assays to detect such features of acquired treatment resistance may allow timely transition to more effective treatment regimens.
Hematopoietic clones with leukemogenic mutations arise in healthy people as they age, but progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare. Recent evidence suggests that the microenvironment may play an important role in modulating human AML population dynamics. To investigate this concept further, we examined the combined and separate effects of an oncogene (c-MYC) and exposure to IL3, GM-CSF and SCF on the experimental genesis of a human AML in xenografted immunodeficient mice. Initial experiments showed that normal human CD34+ blood cells transduced with a lentiviral MYC vector and then transplanted into immunodeficient mice produced a hierarchically organized, rapidly fatal and serially transplantable blast population, phenotypically and transcriptionally similar to human AML cells, but only in mice producing IL3, GM-CSF and SCF transgenically, or in regular mice in which the cells were exposed to IL3 or GM-CSF delivered using a co-transduction strategy. In their absence, the MYC+ human cells produced a normal repertoire of lymphoid and myeloid progeny in transplanted mice for many months but, upon transfer to secondary mice producing the human cytokines, the MYC+ cells rapidly generated AML. Indistinguishable diseases were also obtained efficiently from both primitive (CD34+CD38-) and late (GMPs) cells. These findings underscore the critical role that these cytokines can play in activating a malignant state in normally differentiating human hematopoietic cells in which MYC expression has been deregulated. They also introduce a robust experimental model of human leukemogenesis to further elucidate key mechanisms involved and test strategies to suppress them.
Neck lymph node metastasis (LN+) is one of the most significant prognostic factors affecting 1-in-2 patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The different LN outcomes between clinico-pathologically similar primary tumors suggest underlying molecular signatures that could be associated with the risk of nodal disease development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs)are short non-coding molecules that regulate the expression of their target genes to maintain the balance of cellular processes. A plethora of evidence has indicated that aberrantly expressed miRNAs are involved in cancers with either an antitumor or oncogenic role. In this study, we characterized miRNA expression among OSCC fresh-frozen tumors with known outcomes of nodal disease (82 LN+, 76 LN0). We identified 49 differentially expressed miRNAs in tumors of the LN+ group. Using penalized lasso Cox regression, we identified a group of 10 miRNAs of which expression levels were highly associated with nodal-disease free survival. We further reported a 4-miRNA panel (miR-21-5p, miR-107, miR-1247-3p, and miR-181b-3p) with high accuracy in discriminating LN status, suggesting their potential application as prognostic biomarkers for nodal disease.
PURPOSE BRAFV600E mutations portend poor prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC); however, the true prevalence and prognosis are unknown, as unwell patients may not undergo BRAF sequencing. PATIENTS AND METHODS We reviewed a population-based cohort of 1898 patients with CRC that underwent reflexive immunohistochemistry (IHC) mismatch repair (MMR) & BRAFV600E testing. Outcomes among IHC detected BRAFV600E mCRC (BRAFIHC) were compared to patients with next generation sequencing identified BRAFV600E mutated mCRC from two institutions (BRAFNGS) with patients spanning from 2004-2018. RESULTS All-stage population prevalence of BRAFV600E was 12.5% (238/1898) and did not differ between early and metastatic stages (p=0.094). Prevalence among mCRC was 10.6% (61/575), of whom 51 (83.6%) were referred to oncology and 26 (42.6%) had NGS testing. BRAFIHC had worse median overall survival (mOS) than BRAFNGS (5.5 vs 20.4 months, hazard ratio (HR) 2.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89-4.45, p<0.0001) which persisted in multivariate analysis (p<0.0001). Across a combined NGS and IHC cohort, BRAFV600E tumors with deficient MMR showed worse mOS compared to MMR proficient tumors (8.9 vs 17.2 months, HR 1.46, 95% CI 0.96-2.27, p=0.043). In this combined cohort, first-line progression free survival was 5.9 months, with minimal differences between regimens. Within the population-based cohort, attrition between treatment lines was high with only 60.7% receiving first-line chemotherapy and 26.2% receiving second-line. CONCLUSION BRAFV600E mutated mCRC has a worse prognosis than previously suggested, potentially arising from referral bias for testing. High attrition between lines of therapy suggests efficacious therapies need to be prioritized early for patients to benefit.
Dysfunction of histone methyltransferases and chromatin modifiers has been implicated in complex neurodevelopmental syndromes and cancers.
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a particularly lethal form of DNA damage that must be repaired to restore genomic integrity. Canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), is the widely conserved pathway that detects and directly ligates the broken ends to repair the DSB. These events globally require the two proteins that form the Ku ring complex, Ku70 and Ku80, and the terminal ligase Lig4. While the NHEJ pathway in vertebrates is elaborated by more than a dozen factors of varying conservation and is similarly complex in other eukaryotes, the entire known NHEJ toolkit in
JAK2 V617F mutation is one of the major criteria in the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and its variant allele fraction (VAF) determines the disease phenotype and outcomes. This study aimed to define characteristics and outcomes of patients with JAK2 V617F VAF < 2% compared to patients with VAF 2%-10%.