Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and remains incurable in around 40% of patients. Efforts to sequence the coding genome identified several genes and pathways that are altered in this disease, including potential therapeutic targets1-5. However, the non-coding genome of DLBCL remains largely unexplored. Here we show that active super-enhancers are highly and specifically hypermutated in 92% of samples from individuals with DLBCL, display signatures of activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity, and are linked to genes that encode B cell developmental regulators and oncogenes. As evidence of oncogenic relevance, we show that the hypermutated super-enhancers linked to the BCL6, BCL2 and CXCR4 proto-oncogenes prevent the binding and transcriptional downregulation of the corresponding target gene by transcriptional repressors, including BLIMP1 (targeting BCL6) and the steroid receptor NR3C1 (targeting BCL2 and CXCR4). Genetic correction of selected mutations restored repressor DNA binding, downregulated target gene expression and led to the counter-selection of cells containing corrected alleles, indicating an oncogenic dependency on the super-enhancer mutations. This pervasive super-enhancer mutational mechanism reveals a major set of genetic lesions deregulating gene expression, which expands the involvement of known oncogenes in DLBCL pathogenesis and identifies new deregulated gene targets of therapeutic relevance.
ABC-DLBCLs have unfavorable outcomes and chronic activation of CBM signal amplification complexes that form due to polymerization of BCL10 subunits, which is affected by recurrent somatic mutations in ABC-DLBCLs. Herein, we show that BCL10 mutants fall into at least two functionally distinct classes: missense mutations of the BCL10 CARD domain and truncation of its C-terminal tail. Truncating mutation abrogated a novel motif through which MALT1 inhibits BCL10 polymerization, trapping MALT1 in its activated filament-bound state. CARD missense mutation enhanced BCL10 filament formation; forming glutamine network structures that stabilize BCL10 filaments. Mutant forms of BCL10 were less dependent on upstream CARD11 activation and thus manifested resistance to BTK inhibitors, whereas BCL10 truncating but not CARD mutants were hypersensitive to MALT1 inhibitors. Therefore, BCL10 mutations are potential biomarkers for BTK inhibitor resistance in ABC-DLBCL and further precision can be achieved by selecting therapy based on specific biochemical effects of distinct mutation classes.
Frontiers in Genetics
Formalin fixation of paraffin-embedded tissue samples is a well-established method for preserving tissue and is routinely used in clinical settings. Although formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are deemed crucial for research and clinical applications, the fixation process results in molecular damage to nucleic acids, thus confounding their use in genome sequence analysis. Methods to improve genomic data quality from FFPE tissues have emerged, but there remains significant room for improvement. Here, we use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from matched Fresh Frozen (FF) and FFPE tissue samples to optimize a sensitive and precise FFPE single nucleotide variant (SNV) calling approach. We present methods to reduce the prevalence of false-positive SNVs by applying combinatorial techniques to five publicly available variant callers. We also introduce FFPolish, a novel variant classification method that efficiently classifies FFPE-specific false-positive variants. Our combinatorial and statistical techniques improve precision and F1 scores compared to the results of publicly available tools when tested individually.
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is successfully treated with combination immuno-chemotherapy, but relapse with resistant disease occurs in ~ 40% of patients. However, little is known regarding relapsed/refractory DLBCL (rrDLBCL) genetics and alternative therapies. Based on findings from other tumors, we hypothesized that RAS-MEK-ERK signaling would be upregulated in resistant tumors, potentially correlating with mutations in RAS, RAF, or associated proteins. We analyzed mutations and phospho-ERK levels in tumor samples from rrDLBCL patients. Unlike other tumor types, rrDLBCL is not mutated in any Ras or Raf family members, despite having increased expression of p-ERK. In paired biopsies comparing diagnostic and relapsed specimens, 33% of tumors gained p-ERK expression, suggesting a role in promoting survival. We did find mutations in several Ras-associating proteins, including GEFs, GAPs, and downstream effectors that could account for increased ERK activation. We further investigated mutations in one such protein, RASGRP4. In silico modeling indicated an increased interaction between H-Ras and mutant RASGRP4. In cell lines, mutant RASGRP4 increased basal p-ERK expression and lead to a growth advantage in colony forming assays when challenged with doxorubicin. Relapsed/refractory DLBCL is often associated with increased survival signals downstream of ERK, potentially corresponding with mutations in protein controlling RAS/MEK/ERK signaling.
To gain insight into pre-contact Coast Salish fishing practices, we used new palaeogenetic analytical techniques to assign sex identifications to salmonid bones from four archaeological sites in Burrard Inlet (Tsleil-Waut), British Columbia, Canada, dating between about 2300-1000 BP (ca. 400 BCE-CE 1200). Our results indicate that male chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) were preferentially targeted at two of the four sampled archaeological sites. Because a single male salmon can mate with several females, selectively harvesting male salmon can increase a fishery's maximum sustainable harvest. We suggest such selective harvesting of visually distinctive male spawning chum salmon was a common practice, most effectively undertaken at wooden weirs spanning small salmon rivers and streams. We argue that this selective harvesting of males is indicative of an ancient and probably geographically widespread practice for ensuring sustainable salmon populations. The archaeological data presented here confirms earlier ethnographic accounts describing the selective harvest of male salmon.
Journal of Cell Science
In response to environmental stress, human cells have been shown to form reversible amyloid aggregates within the nucleus, termed amyloid bodies (A-bodies). These protective physiological structures share many of the biophysical characteristics associated with the pathological amyloids found in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Here, we show that A-bodies are evolutionarily conserved across the eukaryotic domain, with their detection in D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae marking the first examples of these functional amyloids being induced outside of a cultured cell setting. The conditions triggering amyloidogenesis varied significantly among the species tested, with results indicating that A-body formation is a severe, but sub-lethal, stress response pathway that is tailored to an organism's environmental norms. RNA-sequencing analyses demonstrate that the regulatory low-complexity long non-coding RNAs that drive A-body aggregation are both conserved and essential in human, mouse, and chicken cells. Thus, the identification of these natural and reversible functional amyloids in a variety of evolutionarily diverse species, highlights the physiological significance of this protein conformation and will be informative in advancing our understanding of both functional and pathological amyloid aggregation events.
The expression of BCL6 in B cell lymphoma can be deregulated by chromosomal translocations, somatic mutations in the promoter regulatory regions or reduced proteasome-mediated degradation. FBXO11 was recently identified as a ubiquitin ligase involved in the degradation of BCL6 and is frequently inactivated in lymphoma or other tumors. Here, we show that FBXO11 mutations are found in 23% of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) patients. FBXO11 mutations impaired BCL6 degradation and the deletion of FBXO11 protein completely stabilized BCL6 levels in human BL cell lines. Conditional deletion of either one or two copies of the FBXO11 gene in mice cooperated with oncogenic MYC and accelerated B cell lymphoma onset, providing experimental evidence that FBXO11 is a haplo-insufficient oncosuppressor in B cell lymphoma. In WT and FBXO11-deficient BL mouse and human cell lines, targeting BCL6 via specific degrader or inhibitors partially impaired lymphoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of MYC by the Omomyc mini-protein blocked cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, effects further increased by combined BCL6 targeting. Thus, by validating the functional role of FBXO11 mutations in BL we further highlight the key role of BCL6 in BL biology and provide evidence that innovative therapeutic approaches such as BCL6 degraders and direct MYC inhibition could be exploited as a targeted therapy for BL.
British Journal of Haematology
The term diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) includes a heterogeneous collection of biologically distinct tumours. This heterogeneity currently presents a barrier to the successful deployment of novel, biologically targeted therapies. Molecular profiling studies have recently proposed new molecular classification systems. These have the potential to resolve the biological heterogeneity of DLBCL into manageable subgroups of tumours that rely on shared oncogenic programmes. In many cases these biological programmes straddle the boundaries of our existing systems for classifying B-cell lymphomas. Here we review the findings from these major molecular profiling studies with a specific focus on those that propose new genetic subgroups of DLBCL. We highlight the areas of consensus and discordance between these studies and discuss the implications for current clinical practice and for clinical trials. Finally, we address the outstanding challenges and solutions to the introduction of genomic subtyping and precision medicine in DLBCL.
Fc γ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) is an inhibitory molecule capable of reducing antibody immunotherapy efficacy. We hypothesized its expression could confer resistance in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) chemoimmunotherapy, with outcomes varying depending on mAb (rituximab [R]/obinutuzumab [G]) because of different mechanisms of action. We evaluated correlates between FCGR2B messenger RNA and/or FcγRIIB protein expression and outcomes in 3 de novo DLBCL discovery cohorts treated with R plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) reported by Arthur, Schmitz, and Reddy, and R-CHOP/G-CHOP-treated patients in the GOYA trial (NCT01287741). In the discovery cohorts, higher FCGR2B expression was associated with significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS; Arthur: hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.19; P = .0360; Schmitz: HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26; P = .0243). Similar results were observed in GOYA with R-CHOP (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.00-1.58; P = .0455), but not G-CHOP (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.69-1.20; P = .50). A nonsignificant trend that high FCGR2B expression favored G-CHOP over R-CHOP was observed (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44-1.02; P = .0622); however, low FCGR2B expression favored R-CHOP (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.00-2.50; P = .0503). In Arthur and GOYA, FCGR2B expression was associated with tumor FcγRIIB expression; correlating with shorter PFS for R-CHOP (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.04-4.50; P = .0378), but not G-CHOP (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.66-2.87; P = .3997). This effect was independent of established prognostic biomarkers. High FcγRIIB/FCGR2B expression has prognostic value in R-treated patients with DLBCL and may confer differential responsiveness to R-CHOP/G-CHOP.
Blood Advances, 2021
Tazemetostat represents the first epigenetic therapy approved for the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL). It inhibits the activity of the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) histone methyltransferase, the first of a multitude of epigenetic regulators that have been identified as recurrently mutated in FL and germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this review, we discuss the initial discovery and ongoing exploration of the functional role of EZH2 mutations in lymphomagenesis. We also explore the path from the preclinical development of tazemetostat to its approval for the treatment of relapsed FL, and potential future therapeutic applications. We discuss the clinical data that led to the approval of tazemetostat and ongoing research into the function of EZH2 and of tazemetostat in lymphomas that derive from the germinal center, which could increase the applicability of this drug in the future.
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports
This study uses ancient DNA analysis to identify the species of salmonids from a number of pre-contact Coast Salish settlements in Burrard Inlet, Canada dating from about 390 BCE to CE 1600. Our results indicate that chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) dominates all Burrard Inlet zooarchaeological assemblages through time, followed distantly by pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), indicative of very stable local fisheries. These results indicate that the four well-sampled sites appear to have been occupied during the fall and winter and perhaps during the spring.
The Journal of pathology, 2019
Despite being the most common childhood bone tumor, the genomic characterization of osteosarcoma remains incomplete. In particular, very few osteosarcoma metastases have been sequenced to date, critical to better understand mechanisms of progression and evolution in this tumor. We performed an integrated whole genome and exome sequencing analysis of paired primary and metastatic pediatric osteosarcoma specimens to identify recurrent genomic alterations. Sequencing of 13 osteosarcoma patients including 13 primary, 10 metastatic, and 3 locally recurring tumors revealed a highly heterogeneous mutational landscape, including cases of hypermutation and microsatellite instability positivity, but with virtually no recurrent alterations except for mutations involving the tumor suppressor genes RB1 and TP53. At the germline level, we detected alterations in multiple cancer related genes in the majority of the cohort, including those potentially disrupting DNA damage response pathways. Metastases retained only a minimal number of short variants from their corresponding primary tumors, while copy number alterations showed higher conservation. One recurrently amplified gene, KDR, was highly expressed in advanced cases and associated with poor prognosis. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
High-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (HGBL-DH/THs) include a group of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) with inferior outcomes after standard chemoimmunotherapy. We recently described a gene expression signature that identifies 27% of germinal center B-cell DLBCLs (GCB-DLBCLs) as having a double-hit-like expression pattern (DHITsig) and inferior outcomes; however, only half of these cases have both MYC and BCL2 translocations identifiable using standard breakapart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Here, 20 DHITsig+ GCB-DLBCLs apparently lacking MYC and/or BCL2 rearrangements underwent whole-genome sequencing. This revealed 6 tumors with MYC or BCL2 rearrangements that were cryptic to breakapart FISH. Copy-number analysis identified 3 tumors with MYC and 6 tumors with MIR17HG gains or amplifications, both of which may contribute to dysregulation of MYC and its downstream pathways. Focal deletions of the PVT1 promoter were observed exclusively among DHITsig+ tumors lacking MYC translocations; this may also contribute to MYC overexpression. These results highlight that FISH fails to identify all HGBL-DH/THs, while revealing a range of other genetic mechanisms potentially underlying MYC dysregulation in DHITsig+ DLBCL, suggesting that gene expression profiling is more sensitive for identifying the biology underlying poor outcomes in GCB-DLBCL.
Although generally curable with intensive chemotherapy in resource-rich settings, Burkitt lymphoma (BL) remains a deadly disease in older patients and in sub-Saharan Africa. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity is a feature in more than 90% of cases in malaria-endemic regions, and up to 30% elsewhere. However, the molecular features of BL have not been comprehensively evaluated when taking into account tumor EBV status or geographic origin. Through an integrative analysis of whole-genome and transcriptome data, we show a striking genome-wide increase in aberrant somatic hypermutation in EBV-positive tumors, supporting a link between EBV and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) activity. In addition to identifying novel candidate BL genes such as , , and , we demonstrate that EBV-positive tumors had significantly fewer driver mutations, especially among genes with roles in apoptosis. We also found immunoglobulin variable region genes that were disproportionally used to encode clonal B-cell receptors (BCRs) in the tumors. These include IGHV4-34, known to produce autoreactive antibodies, and IGKV3-20, a feature described in other B-cell malignancies but not yet in BL. Our results suggest that tumor EBV status defines a specific BL phenotype irrespective of geographic origin, with particular molecular properties and distinct pathogenic mechanisms. The novel mutation patterns identified here imply rational use of DNA-damaging chemotherapy in some patients with BL and targeted agents such as the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in others, whereas the importance of BCR signaling in BL strengthens the potential benefit of inhibitors for PI3K, Syk, and Src family kinases among these patients.
The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD, 2019
Recurrent activating point mutations in KRAS are critical drivers in pancreatic cancer and have been attributed to resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy in colorectal cancer. Although KRAS genotyping provides limited clinical utility in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer patients at present, inferences about the fractional abundance of KRAS mutations may inform on tumor purity in traditionally challenging clinical specimens and their potential use in precision medicine. KRAS genetic testing has indeed become an essential tool to guide treatment decisions in colorectal cancer, but an unmet need for methods standardization exists. Here, we present a unique droplet digital PCR method that enables the simultaneous detection and quantification of KRAS exon 2, 3, and 4 point mutations and copy number alterations. We have validated 13 mutations (G12S, G12R, G12D, G12A, G12V, G12C, G13D, G60V, Q61H, Q61L, A146V, A146T, and A146P) and focal KRAS amplifications by conducting this assay in a cohort of 100 DNA samples extracted from fresh frozen tumor biopsies, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and liquid biopsy specimens. Despite its modest lower limit of detection (approximately 1%), this assay will be a rapid cost-effective means to infer the purity of biopsy specimens carrying KRAS mutations and can be used in noninvasive serial monitoring of circulating tumor DNA to evaluate clinical response and/or detect early signs of relapse.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2019
Liquid biopsies are rapidly emerging as powerful tools for the early detection of cancer, noninvasive genomic profiling of localized or metastatic tumors, prompt detection of treatment resistance-associated mutations, and monitoring of therapeutic response and minimal residual disease in patients during clinical follow-up. Growing evidence strongly supports the utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a biomarker for the stratification and clinical management of lymphoma patients. However, ctDNA is diluted by variable amounts of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shed by nonneoplastic cells causing a background signal of wild-type DNA that limits the sensitivity of methods that rely on DNA sequencing. Here, we describe an error suppression method for single-molecule counting that relies on targeted sequencing of cfDNA libraries constructed with semi-degenerate barcode adapters. Custom pools of biotinylated DNA baits for target enrichment can be designed to specifically track somatic mutations in one patient, survey mutation hotspots with diagnostic and prognostic value or be comprised of comprehensive gene panels with broad patient coverage in lymphoma. Such methods are amenable to track ctDNA levels during longitudinal liquid biopsy testing with high specificity and sensitivity and characterize, in real time, the genetic profiles of tumors without the need of standard invasive biopsies. The analysis of ultra-deep sequencing data according to the bioinformatics pipelines also described in this chapter affords to harness lower limits of detection for ctDNA below 0.1%.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2019
High-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (HGBL-DH/TH) has a poor outcome after standard chemoimmunotherapy. We sought to understand the biologic underpinnings of HGBL-DH/TH with BCL2 rearrangements (HGBL-DH/TH- BCL2) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) morphology through examination of gene expression.
Nature communications, 2018
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive cancer originating from mature B-cells. Prognosis is strongly associated with molecular subgroup, although the driver mutations that distinguish the two main subgroups remain poorly defined. Through an integrative analysis of whole genomes, exomes, and transcriptomes, we have uncovered genes and non-coding loci that are commonly mutated in DLBCL. Our analysis has identified novel cis-regulatory sites, and implicates recurrent mutations in the 3' UTR of NFKBIZ as a novel mechanism of oncogene deregulation and NF-κB pathway activation in the activated B-cell (ABC) subgroup. Small amplifications associated with over-expression of FCGR2B (the Fcγ receptor protein IIB), primarily in the germinal centre B-cell (GCB) subgroup, correlate with poor patient outcomes suggestive of a novel oncogene. These results expand the list of subgroup driver mutations that may facilitate implementation of improved diagnostic assays and could offer new avenues for the development of targeted therapeutics.
Follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the two most common non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs). Here we sequenced tumour and matched normal DNA from 13 DLBCL cases and one FL case to identify genes with mutations in B-cell NHL. We analysed RNA-seq data from these and another 113 NHLs to identify genes with candidate mutations, and then re-sequenced tumour and matched normal DNA from these cases to confirm 109 genes with multiple somatic mutations. Genes with roles in histone modification were frequent targets of somatic mutation. For example, 32% of DLBCL and 89% of FL cases had somatic mutations in MLL2, which encodes a histone methyltransferase, and 11.4% and 13.4% of DLBCL and FL cases, respectively, had mutations in MEF2B, a calcium-regulated gene that cooperates with CREBBP and EP300 in acetylating histones. Our analysis suggests a previously unappreciated disruption of chromatin biology in lymphomagenesis.
Nature genetics, 2010
Follicular lymphoma (FL) and the GCB subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) derive from germinal center B cells. Targeted resequencing studies have revealed mutations in various genes encoding proteins in the NF-kappaB pathway that contribute to the activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL subtype, but thus far few GCB-specific mutations have been identified. Here we report recurrent somatic mutations affecting the polycomb-group oncogene EZH2, which encodes a histone methyltransferase responsible for trimethylating Lys27 of histone H3 (H3K27). After the recent discovery of mutations in KDM6A (UTX), which encodes the histone H3K27me3 demethylase UTX, in several cancer types, EZH2 is the second histone methyltransferase gene found to be mutated in cancer. These mutations, which result in the replacement of a single tyrosine in the SET domain of the EZH2 protein (Tyr641), occur in 21.7% of GCB DLBCLs and 7.2% of FLs and are absent from ABC DLBCLs. Our data are consistent with the notion that EZH2 proteins with mutant Tyr641 have reduced enzymatic activity in vitro.