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Publication Functional DNA methylation differences between tissues, cell types, and across individuals discovered using the M&M algorithm.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 21, 2013
DNA methylation plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as X chromosome inactivation, transposable element repression, genomic imprinting, and tissue-specific gene expression. Sequencing-based DNA methylation profiling provides an unprecedented opportunity to map and compare complete DNA methylomes. This includes one of the most widely applied technologies for measuring DNA methylation: methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (MeDIP-seq), coupled with a complementary method, methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme sequencing (MRE-seq). A computational approach that integrates data from these two different but complementary assays and predicts methylation differences between samples has been unavailable. Here, we present a novel integrative statistical framework M&M (for integration of MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq) that dynamically scales, normalizes, and combines MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq data to detect differentially methylated regions. Using sample-matched whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) as a gold standard, we demonstrate superior accuracy and reproducibility of M&M compared to existing analytical methods for MeDIP-seq data alone. M&M leverages the complementary nature of MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq data to allow rapid comparative analysis between whole methylomes at a fraction of the cost of WGBS. Comprehensive analysis of nineteen human DNA methylomes with M&M reveals distinct DNA methylation patterns among different tissue types, cell types, and individuals, potentially underscoring divergent epigenetic regulation at different scales of phenotypic diversity. We find that differential DNA methylation at enhancer elements, with concurrent changes in histone modifications and transcription factor binding, is common at the cell, tissue, and individual levels, whereas promoter methylation is more prominent in reinforcing fundamental tissue identities.
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications
Publication Spongian diterpenoids inhibit androgen receptor activity.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 21, 2013
Androgen receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor and a validated drug target for all stages of prostate cancer. Antiandrogens compete with physiologic ligands for androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (LBD). High-throughput screening of a marine natural product library for small molecules that inhibit androgen receptor transcriptional activity yielded the furanoditerpenoid spongia-13(16),-14-dien-19-oic acid, designated terpene 1 (T1). Characterization of T1 and the structurally related semisynthetic analogues (T2 and T3) revealed that these diterpenoids have antiandrogen properties that include inhibition of both androgen-dependent proliferation and androgen receptor transcriptional activity by a mechanism that involved competing with androgen for androgen receptor LBD and blocking essential N/C interactions required for androgen-induced androgen receptor transcriptional activity. Structure-activity relationship analyses revealed some chemical features of T1 that are associated with activity and yielded T3 as the most potent analogue. In vivo, T3 significantly reduced the weight of seminal vesicles, which are an androgen-dependent tissue, thereby confirming the on-target activity of T3. The ability to create analogues of diterpenoids that have varying antiandrogen activity represents a novel class of chemical compounds for the analysis of androgen receptor ligand-binding properties and therapeutic development.
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications
Publication DNA hypomethylation within specific transposable element families associates with tissue-specific enhancer landscape.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 21, 2013
Transposable element (TE)-derived sequences comprise half of the human genome and DNA methylome and are presumed to be densely methylated and inactive. Examination of genome-wide DNA methylation status within 928 TE subfamilies in human embryonic and adult tissues identified unexpected tissue-specific and subfamily-specific hypomethylation signatures. Genes proximal to tissue-specific hypomethylated TE sequences were enriched for functions important for the relevant tissue type, and their expression correlated strongly with hypomethylation within the TEs. When hypomethylated, these TE sequences gained tissue-specific enhancer marks, including monomethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1) and occupancy by p300, and a majority exhibited enhancer activity in reporter gene assays. Many such TEs also harbored binding sites for transcription factors that are important for tissue-specific functions and showed evidence of evolutionary selection. These data suggest that sequences derived from TEs may be responsible for wiring tissue type-specific regulatory networks and may have acquired tissue-specific epigenetic regulation.
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications
Publication Nucleophosmin 1, upregulated in adenomas and cancers of the colon, inhibits p53-mediated cellular senescence.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 21, 2013
Dysregulation of nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) has been found in numerous solid and hematological malignancies. Our previous meta-analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC) high throughput gene expression profiling studies identified it as a consistently reported up-regulated gene in the malignant state. Our aims were to compare NPM1 expression in normal colon, adenoma and CRC, to correlate their expressions with clinico-pathological parameters, and to assess the biological role of aberrant NPM1 expression in CRC cells. NPM1 transcript levels were studied in human CRC cell lines, whereas a tissue microarray of 57 normal human colon, 40 adenoma and 185 CRC samples were used to analyze NPM1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. CRC cell lines were subjected to transient siRNA-mediated knockdown to study NPM1's roles on cell viability and senescence. NPM1 transcript levels were 7-11-folds higher in three different human CRC cell lines compared to normal colon cells. NPM1 protein expression was found to be progressively and significantly upregulated in CRC compared to adenomas and in adenomas compared to normal mucosa. Reducing NPM1 expression by siRNA had caused a significant decrease in cell viability, a concomitant increase in cellular senescence and cell cycle arrest. Cellular senescence induced under conditions of forced NPM1 suppression could be prevented by knocking down p53. The differential expression of NPM1 along the normal colon-adenoma-carcinoma progression and its involvement in resisting p53 related senescent growth arrest in CRC cell lines implicate its role in supporting CRC tumorigenesis.
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications
Publication Genome-wide microRNA and messenger RNA profiling in rodent liver development implicates mir302b and mir20a in repressing transforming growth factor-beta signaling.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 21, 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered small RNA molecules that regulate developmental processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis; however, the identity of miRNAs and their functions during liver development are largely unknown. Here we investigated the miRNA and gene expression profiles for embryonic day (E)8.5 endoderm, E14.5 Dlk1(+) liver cells (hepatoblasts), and adult liver by employing Illumina sequencing. We found that miRNAs were abundantly expressed at all three stages. Using K-means clustering analysis, 13 miRNA clusters with distinct temporal expression patterns were identified. mir302b, an endoderm-enriched miRNA, was identified as an miRNA whose predicted targets are expressed highly in E14.5 hepatoblasts but low in the endoderm. We validated the expression of mir302b in the endoderm by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Interestingly, mir20a, the most highly expressed miRNA in the endoderm library, was also predicted to regulate some of the same targets as mir302b. We found that through targeting Tgfbr2, mir302b and mir20a are able to regulate transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signal transduction. Moreover, mir302b can repress liver markers in an embryonic stem cell differentiation model. Collectively, we uncovered dynamic patterns of individual miRNAs during liver development, as well as miRNA networks that could be essential for the specification and differentiation of liver progenitors. (HEPATOLOGY 2013).
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications
Publication Complete haplotype sequence of the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable, diversity, and joining genes and characterization of allelic and copy-number variation.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 20, 2013
The immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus (IGH) encodes variable (IGHV), diversity (IGHD), joining (IGHJ), and constant (IGHC) genes and is responsible for antibody heavy-chain biosynthesis, which is vital to the adaptive immune response. Programmed V-(D)-J somatic rearrangement and the complex duplicated nature of the locus have impeded attempts to reconcile its genomic organization based on traditional B-lymphocyte derived genetic material. As a result, sequence descriptions of germline variation within IGHV are lacking, haplotype inference using traditional linkage disequilibrium methods has been difficult, and the human genome reference assembly is missing several expressed IGHV genes. By using a hydatidiform mole BAC clone resource, we present the most complete haplotype of IGHV, IGHD, and IGHJ gene regions derived from a single chromosome, representing an alternate assembly of ∼1 Mbp of high-quality finished sequence. From this we add 101 kbp of previously uncharacterized sequence, including functional IGHV genes, and characterize four large germline copy-number variants (CNVs). In addition to this germline reference, we identify and characterize eight CNV-containing haplotypes from a panel of nine diploid genomes of diverse ethnic origin, discovering previously unmapped IGHV genes and an additional 121 kbp of insertion sequence. We genotype four of these CNVs by using PCR in 425 individuals from nine human populations. We find that all four are highly polymorphic and show considerable evidence of stratification (Fst = 0.3-0.5), with the greatest differences observed between African and Asian populations. These CNVs exhibit weak linkage disequilibrium with SNPs from two commercial arrays in most of the populations tested.
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications
Publication text/x-asm A Phosphoproteomics Approach to Identify Candidate Kinase Inhibitor Pathway Targets in Lymphoma-Like Primary Cell Lines.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 20, 2013
Mass spectrometry-based technologies are increasingly utilized in drug discovery. Phosphoproteomics in particular has allowed for the efficient surveying of phosphotyrosine signaling pathways involved in various diseases states, most prominently in cancer. We describe a phosphotyrosine-based proteomics screening approach to identify signaling pathways and tyrosine kinase inhibitor targets in highly tumorigenic human lymphoma-like primary cells. We identified several receptor tyrosine kinase pathways and validated SRC family kinases (SFKs) as potential drug targets for targeted selection of small molecule inhibitors. BMS-354825 (dasatinib) and SKI-606 (bosutinib), second and third generation clinical SFK/ABL inhibitors, were found to be potent cytotoxic agents against tumorigenic cells with low toxicity to normal pediatric stem cells. Both SFK inhibitors reduced ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation and induced apoptosis. This study supports the adaptation of high-end mass spectrometry techniques for the efficient identification of candidate tyrosine kinases as novel therapeutic targets in primary cancer cell lines.
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications
Publication Correlation of clinical response and response duration with miR-145 induction by lenalidomide in CD34(+) cells from patients with del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 20, 2013
We examined whether lenalidomide exposure up-regulates miRNAs and mRNAs, previously shown to play a role in the disease phenotype of del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome, in pre-treatment CD34(+) marrow cells. We hypothesized that increased expression would predict for clinical response. Changes in miR-143, miR-145, miR-146a, miR-146b, miR-378, miR-584, SPARC and RPS14 were examined in del(5q) (n=10) and non-del(5q) (n=18) myelodysplastic syndrome patient samples. Significantly increased expression of miR-143 (1.8-fold and 1.5-fold in del(5q) and non-del(5q), respectively), and miR-145 (1.9-fold and 1.6-fold in del(5q) and non-del(5q), respectively) was observed. In the del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome cohort, transfusion independence correlated with a 1.3-fold or more increase in miR-145 expression and response over 12 months correlated with a 1.5-fold or more increase. Knockdown of miR-143 and miR-145 in cord blood CD34(+) cells resulted in increased erythroid progenitor activity. Lenalidomide selectively abrogated progenitor activity in cells depleted of miR-143 and miR-145 supporting a key role for miR-143/145 in the sensitivity to lenalidomide of del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome patients.
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications
Publication ODS spreadsheet Estimating absolute methylation levels at single-CpG resolution from methylation enrichment and restriction enzyme sequencing methods.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 20, 2013
Recent advancements in sequencing-based DNA methylation profiling methods provide an unprecedented opportunity to map complete DNA methylomes. These include whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS, MethylC-seq, or BS-seq), reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), and enrichment-based methods such as MeDIP-seq, MBD-seq, and MRE-seq. These methods yield largely comparable results but differ significantly in extent of genomic CpG coverage, resolution, quantitative accuracy, and cost, at least while using current algorithms to interrogate the data. None of these existing methods provides single-CpG resolution, comprehensive genome-wide coverage, and cost feasibility for a typical laboratory. We introduce methylCRF, a novel conditional random fields-based algorithm that integrates methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP-seq) and methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme (MRE-seq) sequencing data to predict DNA methylation levels at single-CpG resolution. Our method is a combined computational and experimental strategy to produce DNA methylomes of all 28 million CpGs in the human genome for a fraction (<10%) of the cost of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing methods. methylCRF was benchmarked for accuracy against Infinium arrays, RRBS, WGBS sequencing, and locus-specific bisulfite sequencing performed on the same human embryonic stem cell line. methylCRF transformation of MeDIP-seq/MRE-seq was equivalent to a biological replicate of WGBS in quantification, coverage, and resolution. We used conventional bisulfite conversion, PCR, cloning, and sequencing to validate loci where our predictions do not agree with whole-genome bisulfite data, and in 11 out of 12 cases, methylCRF predictions of methylation level agree better with validated results than does whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Therefore, methylCRF transformation of MeDIP-seq/MRE-seq data provides an accurate, inexpensive, and widely accessible strategy to create full DNA methylomes.
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications
Publication Mathematica Notebook Analysis of FOXO1 mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
by Manraj Bahd published Aug 20, 2013
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for 30% to 40% of newly diagnosed lymphomas and has an overall cure rate of approximately 60%. Previously, we observed FOXO1 mutations in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient samples. To explore the effects of FOXO1 mutations, we assessed FOXO1 status in 279 DLBCL patient samples and 22 DLBCL-derived cell lines. FOXO1 mutations were found in 8.6% (24/279) of DLBCL cases: 92.3% (24/26) of mutations were in the first exon, 46.2% (12/26) were recurrent mutations affecting the N-terminal region, and another 38.5% (10/26) affected the Forkhead DNA binding domain. Recurrent mutations in the N-terminal region resulted in diminished T24 phosphorylation, loss of interaction with 14-3-3, and nuclear retention. FOXO1 mutation was associated with decreased overall survival in patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (P = .037), independent of cell of origin (COO) and the revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI). This association was particularly evident (P = .003) in patients in the low-risk R-IPI categories. The independent relationship of mutations in FOXO1 to survival, transcending the prognostic influence of the R-IPI and COO, indicates that FOXO1 mutation is a novel prognostic factor that plays an important role in DLBCL pathogenesis.
Located in Platforms / Scientific Publications